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2004 SPS Outstanding Student Awards for Undergraduate Research
Recipients: 2015 | 2014 | 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 | 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 | 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | About the Award

Note: The awardees also represent SPS and present their research at the annual International Conference of Physics Students (ICPS). Olga Ovchinnikov was unable to attend the 2004 ICPS in Novi Sad, Serbia and Montenegru, so the following runner-up to the Outstanding Student Award attended along with Bradley Deutsch:

Bradley M. Deutsch, Rollins College

"Investigation of the vibrations and tuning of orchestral crotales"

Faculty Mentor: Dr. Thomas R. Moore, Ph.D.

Research Abstract
Crotales are center-weighted, tuned cymbals that are found in the percussion section of most orchestras. They are clamped on a stand in octave sets in the style of a keyboard. Little information about the physics of crotales has been reported in the literature, despite their having the interesting property of producing a particularly pleasing tone. In this study, the acoustic and vibrational properties of crotales in the octaves from Cs to Cg are theoretically and experimentally investigated. Time averaged electronic speckle-pattern interferograms of typical vibrational modes are presented, and the frequencies of the acoustically important modes of crotales are identified and reported. The acoustic spectra of the crotales are compared to theoretical predictions for flat circular plates clamped at the center as well as for clamped annular plates. These models are found to be insufficient for predicting the normal modes of the crotales; we therefore turn to finite element analysis for a deeper understanding of the physics of crotales.

We use FEA models in order to investigate the effect of subtle changes in the magnitude and size of the center mass on the acoustic spectra of the crotales, and we conclude that the dimensions of the center mass are well-chosen by the manufacturer for crotales corresponding to the lowest notes of the lower octave, but not optimal for the entire set.

Finally, physical parameters for a set of clamped annular plates are derived such that the set has similar acoustic properties to a set of crotales, but with more accurate tuning. The annular plate set has the added advantage of containing less metal, presumably contributing to lower production costs. The validity of this alternative annular plate model is confirmed using finite element modeling.

Olga Ovchinnikov, University of Tennessee

"Negative Ions of Bucky-Dumbbells"

Faculty Mentor: Dr. Robert Compton, Ph.D.

Research Abstract
photochemical route to the formation of two C60 molecules which are bridged by one and up to ten carbon atoms to form a bucky-dumbbell shaped molecule, i.e., C60>C<C60 to C60>C=C=C=C=C=C=C=C=C=C<C60, will be described. Irradiation of C60 in solutions of chloroform and iodine (magenta color) with pulsed laser light from the frequency tripled (355 nm) Nd:Y AG laser produced a dark crimson color. Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectroscopy using negative ions was used to examine the irradiated fullerenes. Irradiation of solutions under low laser power for short periods of time (~1 hr) gave exclusively C60>C<C60 negative ions. Higher power and longer irradiation times (~3 hrs) produced C60>Cn<C60 negative ions with n = 1 to lO. All values of n are equally abundant. High performance liquid chromatography was used to separate the bucky-dumbbells from the dominant C60 molecules, confirming the production of the dumbbells in the solution and not in the MALDI. Experiments are underway to examine the multiply charged negative ion properties of these molecules. These studies include electron attachment to the singly charged negative ion, electro spray mass spectroscopy and charge transfer collisions between singly-charged anions and molecules.
Eliza Morris California State University—Sacramento

Eliza Morris"Electrodynamics of a Magnet Moving through a Metallic Pipe"

Faculty Mentor: Costas J. Efthimiou

Research Abstract

The popular demonstration involving a permanent magnet falling through a metallic pipe is treated as a cylindrically symmetric boundary value problem.  Specifically, Maxwell's equations are solved for a uniformly magnetized, cylindrical bar magnet moving coaxially inside an infinitely long, conducting cylindrical shell of finite thickness at nonrelativistic speeds.  Analytic solutions for the fields are developed and used to derive the resulting drag force acting on the magnet in integral form. This treatment provides a significant improvement over the existing ones, and can be made the basis of a quantitative laboratory experiment.  A detailed analytical and numerical study of the properties of the drag force is presented. While the analysis is rigorous and the results are new, the presentation is primarily pedagogical and emphasizes clarity, completeness, and accessibility. Accordingly, extended discussions of the importance of neglected contributions, electrodynamics of moving magnets, and energy conservation are presented.

Notes from the 2004 ICPS: August 14, 2004

Hi! Things are going well. We had the first students lectures today—they were mostly General Physics and Solid State. Yesterday was mostly a wandering about getting to know the city day. There was an official tour but I ended up going with the Danes on their tour (they did there own since some of them had been in the city for several days already) and that was much fun.

I think the best thing about this conference (and probably its purpose) is meeting the other physics students from around the world. My top choice for grad school is in Denmark so it has been great getting to know people from that country.

There is a wee bit of lack of organization but tons of enthusiasm so that makes up for it. Overall I am very glad to be here. So that's it in a nutshell.

Liza  :)

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